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  Town of Windsor

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The Town of Windsor’s Environmental Mosquito Management Program

The Town of Windsor Mosquito Management Program completed its 14th year of cost effective biorational integrated mosquito management operations in 2014 with Colorado Mosquito Control as its contractor. Mosquitoes are dynamic insects which are capable of rapid populations increases dependent on habitat, water level, rainfall events, and temperature patterns.  The experience and knowledge possessed by CMC employees for the local land and irrigation patterns, enables an overall reduction of mosquitoes.  The biorational management operations and data driven response to spikes in mosquito abundance are aimed at reducing the risk and annoyances associated with mosquitoes.  If left unmanaged residents residing throughout large sections of the town would be burdened by mosquitoes, thereby resulting in a decreased quality of life and reduced ability to enjoy outdoor activities.

The objective for the Town of Windsor Mosquito Management Program is to utilize trained field biologists to suppress the number of mosquitoes, in the aquatic larval habitats. This reduces the potential for mosquitoes to emerge from the water to feed on and reduce the transmission of vector borne diseases to the residents of Windsor. The Town of Windsor monitors adult mosquito populations via a surveillance trapping network to enable a proactive response to suppress West Nile Virus vector mosquito populations prior to a public health emergency outbreak. Adult mosquito population data provides real time information regarding the nuisance and risks associated with mosquito populations in Windsor.  Trapping data provides a scientific basis when determining the need to reduce the mosquito populations via adult mosquito control materials. CMC sets 10 mosquito surveillance traps in the Town of Windsor on a weekly basis to monitor the mosquito counts within town.

This objective enables a decline in the overall mosquito populations, while reducing the threat of mosquito borne disease transmission, at the least possible cost, and with the least possible impact on the people and natural environment.  CMC will continue to strive and demonstrate a commitment to Integrated Pest Management principles for a progressive approach to mosquito reduction.
1Please call 970-962-2583 or 970-663-5697 to report any water that stands for more than 4 days, mosquito annoyance concerns, or for information regarding West Nile Virus prevention. Resident phone calls continue to locate new mosquito habitats, thereby reducing the number of mosquitoes in the backyards of Windsor residents.

Service Area
The larval control area for the Town of Windsor encompasses approximately 32 square miles within and surrounding the town limits of Windsor. Although many of the mosquito production sites are outside the town limits, all are well within the flight range of most mosquitoes. Larval control work outside the town will continue to remain a critical part of the overall operations of CMC.

Studies have indicated that adult mosquitoes can travel several miles in search of a blood meal and new habitats for offspring. Mosquitoes can be attracted from outside town limits into a more favorable environment inside town limits by factors including carbon dioxide, protection from wind, a nutrient rich larval site and harborage from heat. Mosquito reduction by Colorado Mosquito Control across the cities within Larimer and Weld Counties greatly reduces transient mosquito populations, thereby protecting the public from West Nile Virus transmission and the nuisance associated with mosquitoes.

How Is The Mosquito Management Program Funded?

The Town of Windsor Mosquito Management Program is funded by town residents through the town’s storm water drainage program.  If you refer to your storm water bill, there is a charge of $1/month or $12/year paid by each lot in the limits of Windsor.  The $12/year per lot funds the surveillance monitoring of larval mosquitoes in the water, the application of bio-larvicide control products, the monitoring of adult mosquito populations via mosquito traps throughout the town, and data driven response & control of adult mosquitoes through ULV fogging applications. The money collected from the storm water drainage program also funds all Windsor resident requests for CMC technicians to inspect resident properties and to provide fish for control of mosquitoes in ornamental ponds, where applicable.
2The History behind the Mosquito Management Program
Windsor’s Integrated Mosquito Management program focuses on utilizing naturally occurring soil bacteria, larvicides, to control mosquitoes in the larval stage, instead of relying entirely on application of pesticides in the form of fogging materials.  The program primarily utilizes applications of Bti, a stomach toxin, which is target-specific to larval mosquitoes. This naturally occurring bacteria is activated by a specific pH within the larval gut and disrupts the larvae’s ability to consume and digest food resources.
When properly carried out, by trained applicators, IPM programs return beneficial results in reduced pesticide use, reduced frequency of pesticide resistance, and reduced exposure to pesticides by the environment. The Mosquito Management Program offered by CMC follows successful IPM principles for cost effective, scientific methods of survey/inspection, evaluation, diagnosis, application and record keeping of materials used.

The 2014 Windsor Mosquito Management staff consisted of 5 Full-time Equivalent employees (FTE). Specifically, we had 1 Manager, 3 Field Technicians, .5 Surveillance Technician and .5 Truck ULV Applicator on staff for the Town of Windsor. To date 271 larval mosquito habitats are included in the regular inspection and larviciding program for the Town of Windsor Mosquito Management Program.  There were 2 new larval sites identified and added to the routine inspection program in 2014.  Field technicians methodically inspect larval habitats twice a week, weekly, bi-weekly or post rainfall, as deemed necessary based off of historical data.  A technician may spend the day inspecting a variety of habitats ranging from urban mosquito breeding locations (storm drains, catch basins, wading pools, paddle boats & tire piles), as well as cattail marshes, stagnant ditches, reservoir edges and irrigated pastures.  Inspections are performed to determine whether larval mosquitoes are present or not at a site. Once the presence of mosquito larvae is confirmed, larvicides are applied.  This enables targeted control, while reducing the miles of city streets that need to be fogged for adult mosquitoes.

Click Here for PDF of: 2014 Windsor Annual Report

2014 Surveillance Trapping Operations

Information about mosquito abundance and species identity is critical to a successful mosquito control program.  Colorado Mosquito Control employs two kinds of traps to monitor mosquito populations.  The most commonly used is the CDC light trap which uses carbon-dioxide from dry ice as bait to attract female mosquitoes seeking a blood meal from a breathing animal.  Once attracted by the CO2, the mosquitoes are lured by a small light to a fan that pulls them into a net for collection.  The gravid trap uses a tub of highly-organic water as bait to attract female mosquitoes that are looking for a place to lay their eggs. A fan placed close to the water surface forces mosquitoes that come to the water into a collection net.  Once back in the laboratory, the contents of the trap nets are counted and identified by technicians trained to recognize the Colorado mosquito species.

In 2014, Colorado Mosquito Control monitored a statewide network of hundreds of weekly trap sites, collecting 505,697 adult mosquitoes that were counted and identified to species by the CMC Surveillance Laboratory. While individual traps provide only limited information, trap data is interpreted in the context of historical records for the same trap site, going back in time more than a decade.  Individual traps are also compared to other traps from around the region that were set on the same night and therefore exposed to similar weather conditions. Technicians working in the Surveillance Laboratory at Colorado Mosquito Control are trained to provide accurate species-level identification of mosquito specimens, for both adults and larvae. 

Additionally, the CMC Surveillance Laboratory conducts an intensive larval identification program with larval mosquito samples collected by I&L technicians prior to larviciding being identified to species. This information is now invaluable in targeting mosquito control efforts as we gain a greater understanding of the habitat types preferred by Colorado mosquito species and the seasonality of these habitats as sites for mosquito development.

CMC employs two kinds of traps to monitor mosquito populations.  The CDC light trap uses carbon-dioxide from dry ice as bait to attract female mosquitoes seeking a blood meal from a respiring animal.  Once attracted by the CO2, the mosquitoes are lured by a small light to a fan that pulls them into a net for collection.  The gravid trap uses a tub of highly-organic water as bait to attract female mosquitoes that are looking for a place to lay their eggs.  A fan placed close to the water surface forces mosquitoes that come to the water into a collection bag. 

2014 Surveillance Light Trap Data Comparison
In 2014, an average of 10 surveillance light traps monitored adult mosquito populations on a weekly basis within the Town of Windsor. Surveillance trapping began the week of June 1st and trapping was concluded on August 28th. The surveillance locations for the Town of Windsor included: Lake Osterhout (WR-02), Chesnut Street Alley (WR-05), Lee Lake (WR-06), River Ridge (WR-11), Eastman Park (WR-12), replaced WR-03 Kiva Circle, Highland Meadows Golf Course (WR-14), North Shores (WR-15), Steeplechase (WR-16), Water Valley North (WR-17), and Water Valley South (WR-18).

In 2014, 119 surveillance light traps were set within the Town of Windsor, which collected 17,751 total mosquitoes. The average number of mosquitoes collected per trap per night was 149 and the average number of Culex spp. mosquitoes collected per trap per night was 64. The percent composition of mosquitoes collected in 2014 included 56.8% (10,088) Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp., 42.8% (7,601) Culex spp., less than 1.0% (2) Coquillettidia perturbans, and 0.3% (60) Culiseta spp. mosquitoes.

Targeted Ultra-low Volume Adult Mosquito Control
Adult mosquitoes can come from unknown unidentified sites or may migrate in from uncontrolled areas. Windsor uses all available data from CDC light traps, Mosquito Hotline annoyance calls, and field technician reports to focus adult mosquito control efforts on specific, very limited “targeted” areas. In parts of the community were high numbers of mosquito annoyance calls are received, “floater” CDC light traps are set to evaluate adult population levels and species make-up. In most cases, a direct correlation is evident between areas with high complaint calls and high trap counts. While this correlation allows us to focus adult control in these areas, the emphasis is placed on finding the source of breeding and continued larval control measures.

Over 95% of the Windsor’s Mosquito Control Program is targeted against larval (aquatic stage) mosquitoes utilizing biological control materials. However, on occasion adult mosquito spraying becomes necessary. At that point Colorado Mosquito Control utilizes 20% Permethrin in ultra low volume (ULV) spray applications via truck mounted fogging machines. ULV sprayers dispense an extremely small amount (0.0035 pounds per acre) of fine aerosol droplets which stay aloft and kill adult mosquitoes on contact.

Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid similar to the insecticide pyrethrum which occurs naturally in chrysanthemum plants. Permethrin is found in a variety of products, including household insecticides, flea dips, repellents for clothing, sprays for pets, and lice shampoos. This pesticide has been selected to achieve effective control of mosquitoes and suppression of West Nile Virus transmission with the least impact on human health and the environment.

Fogging applications are performed based on mosquito populations caught in traps on a nightly basis.  The town is divided into zones.  Specific neighborhoods are fogged when surveillance traps catch 100 floodwater mosquitoes, referred to as a “Nuisance Threshold” or 50 Culex mosquitoes, referred to as a “Disease Threshold”. The thresholds for fogging applications are established by an industry standard that measures vector and nuisance mosquito populations.

Colorado Mosquito Control uses state of the art technology, correct application timing, and least-toxic products to minimize non-target impacts.  All adult mosquito control is accomplished using calibrated Ultra Low Volume (ULV) equipment and performed after dusk. This type of equipment produces droplets averaging 12 microns in diameter and allows for a minimal amount of product to be put into the environment. These treatments take place in the evening when mosquitoes are flying in greater numbers and non-target activity is greatly reduced.  Using this application technique, the overall goal of minimal environmental impact and effective adult control is achieved in the targeted area. All insecticides used by Colorado Mosquito Control are registered by the EPA and the Colorado State Department of Agriculture. For additional information regarding permethrin, including toxicology data please visit: and click on the tab for pesticides. 

4Notification and Shutoff Services
Upon request, residents can be notified prior to spraying with Permethrin insecticides.  Call & Shutoff forms are available online and may be submitted via CMC website or by mail.

Please note that a shutoff does not guarantee that drift of insecticide material will not occur and may decrease the effectiveness of adulticiding on mosquitoes in your immediate area. Please note that the call shutoff list is a service that CMC provides to residents and may be obsolete in the case of a West Nile Virus Public Health emergency, as experienced in 2003/ 2007.

For additional information regarding permethrin, including toxicology data please visit: and click on the tab for pesticides. 

CMC Website
Our website,, is the leading website in the State of Colorado when it comes to providing up-to-date, factual, and comprehensive information on, and links to, mosquito biology and control, mosquito-borne diseases, pesticide toxicology information, and a wealth of topics relating to mosquitoes.

Public Relations and Education Programs
For 23 years CMC has believed in and demonstrated that a strong Public Outreach and Education Program is one of the keys to success in providing large-scale municipal mosquito control programs. Citizen complaints, inquiries, information, and satisfaction surveys can aid in evaluating the effectiveness of a program. CMC constantly looks for ways to better serve the communities we work with and appreciates the citizen involvement in the betterment of the programs we offer. We have clearly demonstrated that commitment and belief by proactively serving the Windsor community (and all of our contracted communities) with numerous innovative programs, activities and services as described in the following section. 

CMC offers a toll-free (in Colorado) telephone line: (877) 276-4306 as well as our local number, and will accept calls from the public concerning, but not limited to the following:

  • Opt their property out of any adulticide spraying via a “shut-off list” which is updated annually and as new requests are received
  • Request notification when adulticide spraying is planned in and around their neighborhood
  • Report mosquito annoyance areas and request floater traps at their residence
  • Report standing, stagnant water that may indicate the presence of larval sites or harborage
  • Request fish to control mosquito larvae (where applicable and appropriate)
  • Request information on how to control and/or prevent mosquitoes on their property and mosquito-borne diseases such as WNV, WEE and SLE
  • Request health and safety information about mosquito control operations and pesticide products used in the Town of Windsor
  • CMC will maintain a log of calls received including date, name, address, and type of call, response, resolution, and resolution date. CMC will summarize call activity in weekly, monthly and annual reports

CMC introduced the concept of a 24 hour guaranteed response/resolution time to all mosquito annoyance complaints to Windsor in 2003 with our trademarked ImmediateResponse™ System.  CMC will continue to respond accordingly to all mosquito related complaints and will refer any service related complaints to the Town of Windsor

  • CMC will verify the validity of mosquito annoyance complaints by on-site inspection including; adult mosquito trapping via nearby pre-determined trap locations or floater traps, as needed, and/or landing counts (10 females mosquitoes per 5 minute period = annoyance level) and/or larval dip surveillance in local breeding sites
  • CMC will resolve all complaints, if possible within 24 hours to the satisfaction and standard of the Town of Windsor
  • CMC will provide education, either verbally or through educational materials to the complainant in an effort to promote self management of mosquito problems.
  • CMC will submit as part of the weekly report all complaints and responses, including those that could not be resolved with reasons for such. 

Free Fish Stocking Program
CMC will continue to work with Windsor residents to supply larvivorous fish to those residents with ornamental and closed-system ponds that are not currently stocked with fish and that may be producing mosquito problems in their neighborhoods. CMC technicians will physically visit the resident’s homes to distribute fish and confirm that the pond is a viable habitat for fish.

Fathead minnows are the preferred fish for this application because they are native to Colorado, prominently found in the Platte, Republican, Arkansas and Rio Grande basins.  Minnows also have high reproductive success and are tolerant of various habitats.  A single fathead minnow can consume up to 600 mosquito larvae an hour, thereby providing another biological control in ornamental ponds. The fathead minnow averages a life span of 3 years.

“Prevention & Protection” Presentations
CMC offers all resident committees, homeowner’s associations, or employers the option to have a member of CMC staff  provide informative presentations about personal protection, repellents, West Nile Virus activity and ways to reduce mosquitoes by dumping/ draining standing water. These presentations work in conjunction with the Colorado Department of Health and Environment’s Fight the Bite campaign.  CMC can also provide specifics about mosquito control operations and data for a given area of Loveland to any person whom requests.  Please call 970-962-2582 for more information or to schedule a presentation time.

Backyard Inspection Program
CMC employs a technician solely assigned to inspecting residential backyards and educating residents about the Fight the Bite campaign.  Backyard inspections will reduce container breeding WNV vector mosquitoes and increase public contact and program involvement.